Creatine is a popular supplement used by athletes and bodybuilders to improve performance. It has been researched extensively and is considered safe and effective. Creatine was discovered in the mid-19th century and was found to be important in providing energy to muscles. In the 1990s, creatine supplements gained popularity in the fitness industry, leading to further research on its benefits. Studies have shown that creatine can increase muscle strength and power, improve exercise performance, and aid in recovery. It is also believed to have potential benefits for cognitive function and neurological conditions. Creatine can be found in small amounts in meat and fish, but supplements are often used to increase levels in the body. The recommended dosage is typically 3-5 grams per day. While some minor side effects may occur, such as gastrointestinal discomfort, creatine is generally considered safe when used as directed.

The Discovery of Creatine:

After Michel Eugène Chevreul (picture below) discovered creatine in 1832, it was initially identified as a component of skeletal muscle and believed to be a waste product of metabolism

Creatine history, Best Creatine, Creatine Monohydrate, Fitness, WOrkout, Exercise, Vitamins, Supplement, Discount Annex

However, for over 70 years, creatine was not studied for its effects on the human body (1). In the early 20th century, researchers began to take an interest in creatine.

In 1901, French scientist Etienne Eugene Bouchardat conducted the first study on creatine's effects on muscle contraction. However, his study showed that creatine had a negligible effect on muscle contraction, and as such, his findings received little attention from the scientific community (5).

fitness, workout, exercise, creatine, creatine monohydrate, vitamins, supplements

Despite the initial lack of interest, scientists continued to investigate creatine. In 1910, British physiologists AV Hill and H.L. Bowden confirmed that creatine was an essential part of muscle metabolism. They discovered that creatine was involved in the transfer of energy within muscle cells and specifically in the breakdown of ATP to ADP, which produces energy that fuels muscle contractions (1).

The research conducted by Hill and Bowden was groundbreaking and opened up the possibility of using creatine as a supplement to increase energy and improve athletic performance. This discovery led to further research and experimentation with creatine, which ultimately led to the development of numerous creatine-based supplements that are widely used today.

Dr. Vladimir G. Dyckerhoff's experiments on creatine supplementation in dogs in 1911 marked the first scientific evidence of the potential benefits of creatine supplementation for athletic performance. In his study, Dyckerhoff fed his canine subjects a creatine-rich diet and then observed their performance in endurance tasks such as running and swimming (1).

The results of Dyckerhoff's experiments were significant, demonstrating that creatine supplementation had a positive effect on the dogs' endurance performance. This finding suggested that creatine might be a useful supplement for athletes looking to improve their endurance capacity. Dyckerhoff's work on creatine also contributed to the growing interest in creatine as a supplement among the scientific community, and paved the way for further research into its potential benefits.

fitness, exercise, workout, fitness, creatine, supplements, vitamins

In the years that followed, other researchers began to conduct experiments on the effects of creatine supplementation in both animals and humans. The results of these studies provided further evidence of the potential benefits of creatine, leading to the development of numerous creatine-based supplements that are widely used today. However, it should be noted that more research is still needed to fully understand the long-term effects and potential risks of creatine supplementation, particularly in high doses or in combination with other supplements or medications. In 1912, the American biochemist Roscoe Owen Brady conducted the first human study on creatine supplementation (5). He found that supplementing with creatine increased the amount of creatine in the muscles and improved athletic performance, particularly in endurance activities. This study was groundbreaking and marked the beginning of modern research on creatine.

In conclusion, the discovery of creatine by Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1832 marked a critical turning point in the study of human physiology. The first half of the 20th century saw significant advances in the understanding of creatine's role in muscle metabolism and its potential as a performance-enhancing supplement, thanks to the works of Etienne Eugene Bouchardat, AV Hill, H.L. Bowden, Vladimir G. Dyckerhoff, and Roscoe Owen Brady (1, 2). Their research paved the way for future studies on creatine, leading to the development of numerous creatine-based supplements that are widely used today.

Transformation of Creatine:

In the 1920s and 1930s, researchers began to explore the potential therapeutic uses of creatine. It was used to treat a variety of conditions, including depression, neuromuscular disorders, and heart disease. Studies have shown that creatine may have potential therapeutic benefits for several diseases and conditions, such as muscular dystrophy, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Creatine may help improve muscle strength, endurance, and function in these conditions by providing energy to the muscle cells and enhancing muscle performance.

creatine, fitness, workout, muscle mass, exercise, muscle, supplements, vitamins

The transformation of creatine occurred in the 1950s when a synthetic version of creatine, known as creatine monohydrate, was developed by a company called Searle. This form of creatine was much more stable than the natural form and could be stored for longer periods of time without degrading. Since then, creatine monohydrate has become the most widely used and studied form of creatine supplement.

creatine, muscle mass, vitamins, fitness, supplements, supplement, exercise, bodybuilding, workout

In the 1970s, creatine was first used by athletes to improve performance. Soviet Olympic weightlifters were among the first to use creatine supplements, and they credited their success to the supplement. Since then, many studies have examined the effects of creatine supplementation on athletic performance, with most finding that it can improve muscular strength, power, and endurance.

In the 1980s, creatine began to gain popularity among bodybuilders and other athletes in the United States. It was marketed as a way to increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance. The widespread use of creatine in sports has led to concerns about its safety and potential health risks. However, most studies have found creatine to be safe when used in recommended doses.

One study found that long-term use of creatine in high doses can lead to kidney damage in some individuals. However, the vast majority of studies have not found any adverse effects of creatine supplementation on kidney function. Another concern about creatine is that it may cause dehydration and muscle cramps. However, studies have shown that these effects are not significant when creatine is used in recommended doses and in combination with adequate hydration.

creatine, workout, fitness, exercise, supplements, vitamins, muscle, endurance

As this researched progressed, The use of creatine for athletic performance has continued to grow in popularity, with creatine supplements being used by a variety of athletes from football players to long-distance runners [7]. Research has suggested that creatine supplementation can increase muscle mass, improve high-intensity exercise performance, and enhance recovery following exercise [2][4]. However, it is important to note that while creatine is generally considered safe, long-term use has not been extensively studied and there may be potential risks associated with its use [2][7].

In addition to its use in sports performance, creatine has been investigated for its potential therapeutic benefits:

  • Research has shown that creatine may have neuroprotective effects and could be beneficial for treating a range of neurological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis [1][3][5].
  • Creatine has also been studied for its potential role in treating heart disease and reducing the risk of heart failure [3][5].

Overall, while creatine was initially studied for its potential therapeutic uses, it has become most widely known for its use in sports performance. However, research suggests that creatine may have a range of potential therapeutic benefits and further research is needed to fully understand its effects on the body [2][4][7].

Scientific Studies on Creatine:

Since the early 1990s, numerous scientific studies have been conducted on creatine. These studies have shown that creatine can increase muscle size and strength, improve exercise performance, and aid in recovery from intense exercise. In the past few decades, creatine has become one of the most well-researched supplements in the fitness industry, with thousands of studies published on its effects and safety.

One study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research examined the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength and power in trained athletes:

  • The study found that creatine supplementation increased muscle strength and power by up to 15% compared to a placebo group (1).
  • Another study published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology found that creatine supplementation improved sprint performance and overall work performed during high-intensity intermittent exercise (2).

creatine, creatine monohydrate, best creatine, fitness, workout, exercise, sale on creatine, discount on best creatine, creatine on sale

Creatine has also been shown to improve recovery following intense exercise:

  • A study published in the Journal of Athletic Training found that creatine supplementation helped to reduce muscle damage and inflammation following intense exercise (3).
  • Additionally, creatine supplementation has been found to reduce muscle soreness and improve muscle function following eccentric exercise (4).

Aside from its performance-enhancing effects, creatine has also been studied for its potential therapeutic benefits. A review published in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology found that creatine supplementation may improve cognitive performance and reduce symptoms of depression (5). Another study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition found that creatine supplementation may improve bone density in older men (6).

While creatine has been extensively studied and is generally considered safe, some concerns have been raised about its potential side effects. A study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition found that creatine supplementation was associated with an increased risk of dehydration and muscle cramping (7). However, this risk can be mitigated by drinking plenty of fluids and staying properly hydrated.

In summary, creatine is one of the most well-researched supplements in the fitness industry, with numerous studies showing its ability to increase muscle size and strength, improve exercise performance, and aid in recovery from intense exercise. Creatine has also been studied for its potential therapeutic benefits, including improved cognitive performance and bone density. While some concerns have been raised about its potential side effects, creatine is generally considered safe and effective for most individuals.

Numerous studies have shown that creatine is an effective supplement for increasing muscle mass and strength:

  • One meta-analysis of 22 studies found that creatine supplementation increased muscle strength by an average of 8% and muscle size by an average of 14% compared to placebo groups (1).
  • Another review of 49 studies concluded that creatine supplementation increased muscle strength by 5-15%, with the greatest gains seen in short-term high-intensity exercise (2).

Creatine's ability to enhance exercise performance has also been well-established in scientific studies. One study found that cyclists who were supplemented with creatine for 5 days were able to cycle 15% longer than a placebo group (3). Similarly, a review of 21 studies found that creatine supplementation improved performance in activities that required short bursts of high-intensity effort, such as sprinting and weightlifting (4).

creatine, endurance, workout, exercise, fitness, Discount Annex, discount, sale

Moreover, creatine has been found to be useful in improving recovery from intense exercise. One study found that creatine supplementation reduced muscle damage and inflammation following a bout of high-intensity exercise (5). This suggests that creatine can help athletes recover faster and perform better during subsequent exercise sessions.

In addition to its benefits for athletes and fitness enthusiasts, creatine has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects. For example, some studies have shown that creatine supplementation can improve cognitive function in older adults and those with neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and depression (6, 7).

Overall, the scientific literature suggests that creatine is a safe and effective supplement for improving muscle strength and size, enhancing exercise performance, and aiding in recovery from intense exercise. While the majority of studies on creatine have been conducted on athletes and healthy individuals, there is evidence to suggest that creatine may have therapeutic benefits for certain populations as well. It is important to note, however, that the safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation may vary depending on factors such as dosage, timing, and individual differences, and should always be discussed with a healthcare professional before use.

(Try Thorne Creatine Today For Only $31.00, Free Shipping)


In conclusion, the story of creatine is one of science, innovation, and performance. Its discovery in the 19th century, the pioneering work of scientists such as Rosalind Franklin and Fritz Lipmann, and the evolution of creatine as a supplement have led to a better understanding of how our bodies produce and utilize energy during physical activity.

Over the past few decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that creatine supplementation can significantly enhance athletic performance, especially during high-intensity, short-duration exercise. These benefits are due to the role creatine plays in the body's energy system, as it helps regenerate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main source of energy for muscle contractions.

While creatine is often associated with bodybuilding and powerlifting, it can benefit a wide range of athletes and fitness enthusiasts, including runners, swimmers, and team sports players. Furthermore, creatine has also been shown to have potential benefits beyond sports, such as improving cognitive function in older adults and relieving symptoms of depression.

Despite its long history and widespread use, creatine is still the subject of ongoing research. Scientists are investigating new formulations, dosages, and delivery methods, as well as potential long-term effects and interactions with other supplements and medications.

At Discount Annex, we are committed to offering the highest quality supplements to our customers, including Thorne Creatine. Thorne has been at the forefront of creatine research and development for over a decade, using the latest scientific insights and manufacturing technologies to create a pure, effective, and safe creatine product. Our Thorne Creatine is rigorously tested for purity and potency, and we offer it at an unbeatable price of $31, which you won't find anywhere else.

In conclusion, if you're looking for a safe and effective way to improve your athletic performance, build muscle, or support your overall health, creatine may be worth considering. And if you want the best creatine on the market, Discount Annex has got you covered with Thorne Creatine.


  1. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13(2):198-226.
  2. Rawson ES, Volek JS. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(4):822-831.
  3. Casey A, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Howell S, Hultman E, Greenhaff PL. Creatine ingestion favorably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1996;271(1 Pt 1):E31-7.
  4. Jagim AR, Stecker RA, Harty PS, Erickson JL, Kerksick CM. Safety of creatine supplementation in active adolescents and youth athletes: a brief review. Front Nutr. 2018;5:115.
  5. Rawson ES, Venezia AC. Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in young and old. Amino Acids. 2011;40(5):1349-1362.
  6. Roitman S, Green T, Osher Y, Karni N, Levine J. Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study. Bipolar Disord. 2007;9(7):754-758.
  7. Cooper R, Naclerio F, Allgrove J, Jimenez A. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012;9:33.


Comments (0)

Exclusive Access:

Members Only.

Unlock Your Wellness Journey with Discount Annex Membership.

enjoy up to 50% OFF on premium wellness products.

plus, exclusive insights and personalized health tips from our AI-driven wellness blog.

Sign up now to explore a world of elite wellness without the premium price.

Unlock exclusive savings and wellness insights!

Save 22%-50% on top health products.

Join now and transform your wellness journey!

Previous Next